China Education System
China, the education is divided into three categories: basic education, adult education and higher education. The Compulsory Education Law specifies thateach childhave nine years of certified education. Generally, as with all universities, all students who wish to apply for higher education must have completed years 12 standard of their studies in order to gain admission into a university.
Basic education in China includes pre-school education, primary education and regular secondary education.
Preschool, or kindergarten, can last up to three years, with children entering as early as age three, until age six, when they typically enter elementary school. The academic year is divided into two semesters.Secondary education is divided into academic secondary education and specialized vocational & technical secondary education.
Academic secondary education is delivered by academic lower and upper middle schools. Lower middle school graduates wishing to continue their education take a locally administered entrance exam, on the basis of which they will have the option either of continuing in an academic upper middle school or of entering a vocational secondary school. Vocational schools offer programs ranging from two to four years and train medium-level skilled workers, farmers, and managerial and technical personnel. Technical schools typically offer four-years programs to train intermediate technical personnel. Schools for Skilled Workers typically train junior middle school graduates for positions requiring production and operational skills. The length of training is typically three years, and in some cases it could be longer.
The adult education category overlaps all three of the above categories. Adult primary education includes Workers Primary Schools, Peasants Primary Schools, and literacy classes. Adult secondary education includes radio/TV specialized secondary schools, specialized secondary school for cadres, specialized secondary schools for staff and workers, specialized secondary schools for peasants, in-service teacher training schools and correspondence specialized secondary schools. Adult higher education includes radio/TV universities, cadre institutes, workers, colleges, peasant colleges, correspondence colleges, and educational colleges. Most of the above offer both two and three year short-cycle curriculum only a few also offer regular undergraduate curriculum.
Higher education at the undergraduate level includes two and three year junior colleges (sometimes also called short-cycle colleges, four-year colleges, and universities offering programs in both academic and vocational subjects). Many colleges and universities also offer graduate programs leading to the masters or Ph.D. degree.
Chinese higher education at the undergraduate level is divided into three-year and four-year programs. The formers offered not only at short-cycle colleges, but frequently also at four-year colleges and universities. The second is offered at four-year colleges and universities but do not always lead to the bachelors degree.
In terms of higher education, universities, colleges, institutes, and vocational colleges offer degree (e.g., bachelors masters and doctoral) programs as well as non-degree programs are open to international students as well as local students. There are over 2,000 universities and colleges, and students are required to pay tuition. The number of post-secondary students in China has been growing at approximately 30% per year since 1999, and the number of graduates has increased dramatically in the 21st century.
Universities in China fall under either the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, or ministries of the Central government, provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities or certain major cities. Universities and independent institutes are all institutions of higher learning on the same equilibrium.
In China, a strict entrance examination system has been introduced with a view to ensuring the quality of new entrants to universities. The unified national best and brightest in terms of all round development of morality, intelligence and physique can have access to higher education.
The academic year of full time universities is separated into two semesters (A few have three).The first semesters begins in September and the second in February. Each semester has about 20 weeks and each week has six school days. In addition to mandatory winter and summer vacations, every 1st January (National Day) students have a 7-day holiday. Universities operate normally on other anniversaries and traditional celebrations.
China universities check both students attendance and achievements. Absence from class without any sound reason is strictly prohibited. Participation in examination specified by the teaching program is compulsory. When students have completed all courses offered in the program and passed the examination, they are entitled to go up one grade.
In universities where the credit system has been introduced, a credit is obtained when any student passes the examination. However, if the student fails, this will result in repetition, back to a lower grade or discontinuation of schooling according to school regulations.Students local or international of good character and intellect are rewarded, commended and granted scholarships by China universities.